NIH Library of Medicine PubMed Central

Journal List  Kidney Dis (Basel)  v.8(2); 2022 Mar  PMC9021642

Background: Hydrogen, a chemical substance with untapped potential in medicine, has recently emerged as a subject of interest due to its diverse pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. The focus on hydrogen’s application in various diseases, particularly those affecting the renal system, is increasing.

Summary: Hydrogen can be administered through inhalation, as a gas or liquid, and orally, intravenously, or locally. It readily penetrates suborganelles like mitochondria and the nucleus through simple diffusion, generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inducing DNA damage. Hydrogen selectively scavenges hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) while sparing other reactive oxygen radicals with physiological functions, such as superoxide anion (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Although the regulatory impact of hydrogen on signal transduction pathways has been confirmed, the precise mechanism influencing signal molecules remains unknown. Despite numerous studies exploring therapeutic and preventive effects in cellular and animal experiments, clinical trials are limited and lagging behind. Thus, additional clinical trials are essential to investigate hydrogen’s role in kidney disease, considering its dose, timing, and form for optimal efficacy. Large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials are imperative before hydrogen can be considered a viable treatment for renal illnesses.

Key Messages: This article comprehensively reviews the mechanisms of hydrogen in treating renal diseases and explores its potential applications in clinical practice.

背景: 氫是一種化學物質,至今尚未在醫學領域被廣泛應用。然而,近期的證據表明氫具有多面向的藥理效應,如抗氧化、抗炎和抗凋亡特性。越來越多的研究致力於氫在各種疾病中的應用,尤其是那些影響腎臟系統的疾病。

總結: 氫可以通過吸入(氣體或液體形式)或口服、靜脈內注射或局部應用進行給予。氫可以通過簡單擴散迅速進入亞細胞結構,如粒線體和細胞核,產生活性氧物種(ROS)並觸發DNA損傷。氫能選擇性清除氫氧自由基(•OH)和過硝基酸鹽(ONOO−),但不清除其他具有生理功能的活性氧自由基,如過氧根離子(O2−)和過氧化氫(H2O2)。儘管氫對信號轉導途徑的調節效應已經確認,但其對信號分子的具體影響機制仍未知曉。儘管許多研究在細胞和動物實驗中探討了H2的治療和預防效果,但臨床試驗有限,進展緩慢。因此,需要進一步的臨床試驗來探討氫在腎臟疾病中的作用,以及其劑量、時間和形式對總體療效的影響。在氫能夠用於治療腎臟疾病之前,將需要大規模的隨機對照臨床試驗。

主要信息: 本文全面評估了氫治療腎臟疾病的機制,並探討了其在臨床實踐中的潛在應用。

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